These, on the other hand, separated in artificial way pertaining human groups to the same tribes, falantes of the same dialects and practitioners of the same customs and submitted them, on the other hand, to the influence of European values. Amazon follows long-standing procedures to achieve this success. On the Congress of Berlin Moraes (1996) it says: From the moment that the African continent could not more supply slaves, interest of the powers colonies inclined for its territorial occupation. this was given for two reasons, the first one of them is that they ambicionavam to explore the wealth African, mineral and agricultural, existing in hinterland, until then partially only known. As it had the imperialista competition each bigger time between them, especially after the celebration of the unification of Germany, occured in 1871. For times was arrived to occupy it extensive desert-like regions, as it made it to France in the Saara (calling it equatorial France), only for does not leave them for the adversary. In many of these new countries, after independence, had inevitable separatistas revolts and coup d etat that had finished for restoring dictatorships. Following capitalist or socialist lines of direction, the thus consisting governments always distinguished for the persecution politics, that arrived to culminate in tortures and slaughters of the opponents. To a large extent of the cases, independence politics was not total, therefore generally the new countries had kept economic bows with the former-metropolises and, during the Cold War, some had leagued the great powers to it (United States and Soviet dead person Union) in search of military and economic assistance.
Of everything this results the existence of many focos of conflict in the continent. In some cases politician is about character fights: groups that they intend to conquer the power if collate with that they withhold the domain of the region. In others, the main reason is the separatism, originated for the artificialidade of the inherited colonial borders.
This fact if must to the fear generated for the possibility of the Europe, joined, if to become one superpower, intervening with the relations you deal of the whole world and to increase the protectionism degree stops with the countries not-members. However, ' ' structural, conjunctural, circumstantial, geographic obstacles, politicians, economic and historical had acted against this processo' '. (MENEZES, 1990, P. 13). For the defenders of the Latin American economic integration, the same one would increase the market and the commerce, and consequently, industrialization in the region would grow, it would have the specialization in the production, and, if it would implant the economic production of scale, the efficiency and the competitiveness of the region would increase. Alfredo of the Mota Menezes detaches that ' ' the integration would be the ideal form to work and to defend, and, gradually increased well-being of the peoples integrados' '.
(MENEZES, 1990, p.15). These would be the common benefits that pressupostamente Latin America would stimulate route to the economic and social development. The Cepal (Economic Commission for Latin America), on agency the ONU (Organization of United Nations), was the institution that more fought for the regional economic integration. The Cepal considered to industrialization as base for the Latin American development. ' ' Without industries of first and according to stadiums, to substitute the importations, the economic growth of the region never ocorreria' '. (MENEZES, 1990, P. 17).
As Immanuel Wallerstein the Cepal contradicted the benefits of one economic policy of open borders and supported in contraposition a regulating paper of the governments in order to reorganize the national economies. The main recommendation was to promote the substitution of importation through the protection of the rising industries, politics that widely was adopted. Until certain point, the recommendations of the Cepal had been followed by the Latin American governments and effectively it had a economic improvement, even so limited, in the Fifties and sixty.
Today the agricultural populations migram for the great urban centers. The proper urbanization, the industrial and technological growth and the pollution that happen of these changes become providing with drinking waters a difficult task. Therefore, one becomes necessary a management and one serious politics of these scarce resources, with a radical control of the pollution. (MONTORO, APUD VIANNA, 2005, P. 250-251) We commemorate in 2003 the International Year of the Water Candy, but this is a quarrel that will go to extend for the next decades and generations, a time that the survival of the planet depends on the quality of the water. From there importance of this initiative, and if making of the celebrations of this year a permanent souvenir. Although it is an abundant element in the planet, only 2.53% of the total constitute waters candies, proper for the human consumption.
In 2015, almost 3 billion people – 40% of the projected world-wide population – must live in countries with difficulties to guarantee water enough to take care of agriculture, the industry and the domestic necessities of the population. One is about a problem with implications gigantic politics, economic and partner ambient, whom if he reflects, since already, in the poverty of great part of the world-wide population. One of the goals of the millenium established by United Nations, in 2000, the water foresaw the reduction for the half of the world-wide population without access potable candy and up to 2015. To reach these objectives, it would be necessary to take canalized water more than the 300 a thousand people per day and basic sanitation more than 500 a thousand. The goal will not be fulfilled, but in contrast, esteem that until this date sets of ten of millions of people they have died in result of illnesses related to the water, including average of 6 a thousand children per day.