Brazil 21st Century

Francisco Alambert and Robert Isac Happiness Blacksmith Summary the present article will analyze in metodolgicos and theoretical terms the relation between the texts ' ' Looks on Brazil of Century XIX' ' , Lisbon, ' ' Brazil in the Mirror of the Paraguai' ' , Alambert, and ' ' Crossbred Brazil: Race and Culture in the Ticket of the Monarchy to the Repblica' ' , Happiness. It will also deal with the relation between the historical context that made possible the formation of the concept of Brazilian nation. Word-keys: culture, mirror, race and slavery. It was not mere coincidence, but Carlos Guillermo Motta when showing caution to organize the workmanship ' ' Incomplete Trip 1500-2000: The Brasileira&#039 Experience; ' , it had the care to place texts that of this an understandable sequencia for its readers, where as the text would give continuity to the subject worked in the first one. presents a new innovative perspective in its workmanship, preferring many times, to work with something more cultural. will work with some subjects, inside they, the empire, that it formulates the nation idea, therefore the monarchy represents the linking with the Europe.

Karen Lisbon will think the year of 1808 as a founding moment for the nation direction about Brazil. It will recognize some looks foreign, European, American as in such a way peripheral, for construction of a perspective that Brazil will initiate from these new vises. Karen make reference to reference the slavery, however, some travellers do not go deep the subject, affirming that always others would have made already it and when they speak recognize that ' ' escravo' ' country hindered the development it so that it was arrived at the height of the desired civilizador process in Brazil, and also says that even so they delayed ' ' nosso' ' civilizador process for these ' ' negros' ' , the slavery would be a form to refine them, contributing for the civilizador process of the blacks, they relate to the treatment form stops with the blacks here in Brazil with brandura and docilidade.

History Of Ancient Egypt. The Origin Of The State .

To better understand the history of ancient Egypt, the establishment of its art and culture requires a brief digression to the main era that followed the development of this state. Egyptian border formed by nature. South extremity were impassable first Nile cataract, is located near Aswan. From the west to the river approached the sandy slopes of the Libyan plateau. Located on the east rocky mountain spurs. Below the first threshold Neal carried their water due north along a narrow long valley. This area is called Upper Egypt. Two hundred kilometers from the mouth of a river in ancient times, divides into several branches, the valley widened, forming a Nile Delta, the so-called Lower Egypt.

If you look into the distance of centuries and Unwind time counter for 10-12 thousand years ago, we can see that the climate of North Africa was less arid than it is now. More recently completed the melting of ice, covering part of Europe in the late glacial period. At this time, over North Africa swept the moist winds, heavy rains fell, and at the site of present desert was a savanna with high grass and rich flora world. Nile Valley and its neighboring areas have been mastered early in person. Here are found the remains of encampments paleolithic hunters and gatherers with hearths, animal bones and tools. The number of flint implements some of the settlements reached several thousand. The most typical monuments of the farming communities of Lower Egypt V millennium bc are the settlements are located on the shores of Lake Fayum.

Lado Vardzelashvili

But they were bombed during the war, the Orthodox churches in the Shida Kartli region, but not a monument to Stalin. ” Surprisingly, although the bomb fell on the central square enormous monument nearly hurt. Along with the “mission statement” of the President, the ruling party of the second and third tier urged the public to consider the feasibility of moving the monument Stalin in his museum. Moreover, as explained by the VC in the Ministry of Culture, Stalin Museum (also located in the central square in Gori), will officially become part of the Occupation Museum, opened in Tbilisi, and its exposure (including Stalin monument) will talk about “70 years of occupation of the country.” More recently, in Georgia, it was impossible to even conceive of such a “sacrilege” as the transfer from the center of Gori, Stalin monument. In 1989, at the dawn “National liberation movement” radicals, advocating for Georgia’s withdrawal from the Soviet Union had tried to raise the issue of demolition of the monument. “Well, really, how can you claim to secede from the state, the chief creator which is immortalized in the central town square? “- they said. In response goriytsy formed militia were on duty at the memorial and nights on end with pieces of rebar and hunting rifles.

Closer to the huge the crowd with a crane no one dared. One crane was used to demolish the statue of Lenin – the central square in Tbilisi (now the Freedom Square), where in 2005 President Bush spoke. In contrast to “our Joseph” who want to to protect the monument to Lenin in Georgia was not. NO IDOL statement Mikheil Saakashvili can safely be considered the beginning of a new era in the country. Hardly a sophisticated politician, always pay special attention to public resonance of their demarche, delivered to such an initiative without taking into account changes in the society. More recently, Saakashvili stressed that he was born on December 21 – the same day as Dzhugashvili.

At this time there is no “rage of the masses” in protection of the monument or in Gori, nor the whole of Georgia is not. Governor of Shida Kartli, a 29-year-old Lado Vardzelashvili told VK, that “the municipality is planning to hold a plebiscite in Gori, about the fate of the monument.” Certainly, his results have predicted by the authorities and monument perekochuet to the museum. “In place of the ugly buildings we erect a huge, beautiful monument to the victims during a missile strike on August 12 and all the bombing in Gori, Poti and other regions of Georgia. Each name – gold letters “- Mr. Vardzelashvili dreams. The competition for the monument has already been announced. Does this suck goriytsy, especially the older generation? This question I asked Guram. The old man looked at the monument and once said indifferently, “What is it? … After all that has done for us? Preserved state, which destroys us. ” One Tbilisi-based journalist recently named 12 August 2008 (when the rocket fell on Gori and the loss of Abkhazia and South Ossetia became inevitable) birthday of the new Georgia, finally goodbye to the past.

Lower Egypt

In the second half of the iv millennium bc Egypt outline the contours of the main sectors of society. Dominant layer. It included the descendants of the tribal nobility. Priesthood. Wealthy commoners, the main producers of wealth of ancient society. Stratum of slaves.

The first state came within small areas – nomes, which covered several settlements, united around the city center, where the residence of the leader and the sanctuary, revered deity here. On the territory of Upper Egypt during the new kingdom noma were 22, in Lower Egypt – 20 nomes. Noma – the oldest public education have sought to unite, in consequence of which appeared larger kingdom. Roughly union nomes of Upper Egypt into one kingdom and Lower Egypt – in other major kingdom was in the iv millennium bc The governor of Upper Egypt was wearing a white crown and the lower – red. Congressman Lee Zeldin shines more light on the discussion. For some time the kingdom existed near each other and were another war. This led eventually to the unification of Upper and Lower kingdoms into a unified the Egyptian government, covering the entire valley from the first threshold to the Mediterranean coast.

Early kingdom (XXXI – xxix in. In. To BC) The union of Upper and Lower kingdoms led to the fact that within one state were concentrated resources of the entire valley and delta of the Nile, there were favorable conditions for the establishment of a common Egyptian irrigation system, without which the existence of farming. Replaced by constant internal Egyptian wars, weakening the country, it's political unity.

Federal University

The Jorge Blacksmith is associate professor of the Department of History of the Federal University of Inhabitant of the state of Rio de Janeiro. In its workmanship Brazil Republic that was written together with Thin the Luciana historian, searchs to analyze the structure politics of Brazil during the Republic, for this they cite the alliances politics that had been constructed, the economic conflicts and sproutings of popular organizations. In I capitulate eight Blacksmith initiates saying on the historiografia of Goulart Joo and the blow to it of 1964, the sample that, however they search to incriminate it for a blow as being Goulart the only present individual in this act, however tries in irreversible and unavoidable way to blame the collective. From there the author speaks of the historigrafos that try to personalize history. Showing the vision of the right, where enxerga as a corrupt demagogue who was influenced for Communists.

In against departure of the left, the president was a leader bourgeois of mass, thus executing the blow. An explanation that enters in consensus for the two sides of the historians is of that Goulart Joo was assumed the perfio of one populist politician. The blow for many was resultant of the crisis of the exporting agrarian area. Or that the economic crisis demanded an authoritarian regimen for regulation of the conflicts. After to cite the beliefs of the historians in relation to the blow Jorge Blacksmith appeals, as it writes, to the historical methods, for this it tries to reconstruct which the social interests of the participants of this historical process and conflicts. It starts speaking of the parliamentarism, where he was implanting pressas, with intention to hinder the military blow, the great interest is observed in if to keep the democracy, exactly thus Goulart keeps commerce with the socialist countries. Goulart Joo receives as inheritance a country with a great economic crisis, to try finally to this crisis, it travels for U.S.A.

Paraba Industries

It is important to notice that some industries have obtained to be modernized using some strategies as new methods of organization of the work and the production, whereas in the process of economic reorganization and politics of the industry in the region, they are come close using itself of the otimizao of the local resources, but the paraibana industry comes if diversifying, therefore it is investing in the sectors that they are on for the great urban centers, and is through these sectors that are illustrious representative of this new dynamics, we can cite as paved example, plastics, drinks and leather. Placing that the industry of Footwear is the one that more comes if spreading inside of the proper State, thus the segment of not-durable goods if detaches with 76% of units installed after 1980 of century XX, of which 54% after 1990 of century XX, however the prescription of the paraibanas industries comes, mainly, of the sales of products in other states, followed of sales the markets of the proper region. The Great parts of the paraibanas companies, between 1999 and 2001, present investment in the acquisition of machines and equipment, programs of training of the man power and acquisition of computer science equipment and the reasons that take the entrepreneurs, according to them, to invest in the industry are, namely, the magnifying of the productive capacity, improvement of the product quality and improvement of the efficiency, as it pointed in them historian and sociologist Martha Lcia Ribeiro: ' ' firms as the SAMBRA and the CLAYTON, financed the small producers, however after the harvest, determined the prices, in detriment of the products, discouraging, thus, produo.' ' However, the city of Great Campina in years 60 of century XX, would attend the sprouting of new industries and the proliferation of the number of its industrial establishments, surpassing the politician-administrative capital of the Paraba, Joo Person, whose indices of industrial growth reigned in the decade of 40 of century XX. .

Georgian Mensheviks

However, claims Georgian nobility in South Ossetia have been rejected by the Senate, decided to "Georgian princes Machabelovym refuse to recognize harassment of their feudal rights over the Ossetians' (Central State Archive of the GSPC, the Caucasus Fund Committee, on number 844, fol. Continue to learn more with: Connecticut Senator. 68. Essays on the history of Ossetia with. 128). By order of the emperor South Ossetians have been translated into the category of state-owned, state peasants, and thus excluded from the system of feudal dependence, and hence political control of the Georgian nobility, having received a special socio-economic status. It was a prototype for the political autonomy of South Ossetia, owing to its historically specific situation Transcaucasia. "Civil war" after the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, coming from Russia, Georgia has attempted to annex the territory of South Ossetia, against the wishes of its people, which resulted in a surge protests of the Ossetian people.

These performances from degenerating into armed rebellion in various political centers of South Ossetia – Cornice (1917), Tskhinvali (1918), Java, Hand (1920). Their reason was the "Declaration of the Rights of Peoples Russia ", adopted by the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR 2 (15) November 1917 providing for the right of the peoples of Russia to self-determination up to secession and the formation of an independent state. It is the proclamation of the law formed the basis of the integration of Russian provinces Georgian Mensheviks, their withdrawal from Russia, and the announcement in 1918 on the establishment of the Georgian Democratic Republic.

Legalism Philosophy

Confucianism goes back to the teachings of Confucius (Kong Zi – Teacher Kong) (551-479 BC. Oe.), Who saw his task in the preservation of ancient tradition. Confucius did not write treatises. His ideas were later collected by his disciples in the book "Conversations and suzh Denia. " The main theme of philosophizing of Confucius – the relationship of individuals, families and the state.

A solid state founded on a solid Xia family. Confucius saw no difference in principle between such institutions as the State and family. Administration of the state envisioned it like managing a family and was described in the family-related categories (state dar – "father and mother of the people," State – "one family"), and social ties identified with the interpersonal. Hear from experts in the field like Sen. Sherrod Brown for a more varied view. Con futsianstvo reduces the problems of the state and the family to the problem of human rights, his righteous life and self-improvement. Prescribes a specific person Confucius aspiration tion to the ideal "Noble man", which features rogo is the possession of the following main characteristics: the humanity, decency, propriety knowledge, wisdom and loyalty. Whenever novelist listens, a sympathetic response will follow.

To show them only in their relations with other people. The most influential of the followers of Confucius – Mencius (371-289 BC. Oe.) Expanded the theoretical basis conf tsianstva. Mencius regarded man as a creature of the good nature inherent virtues of the natural man way. Consequently quently, the management should be humane as well as good management people follow their own accord. The supreme goal of the state – the welfare and virtue of the people. The opposite view is taken by Xun Zi. He considered it a bad person by nature, seeking only profit and sensual pleasures. Only constant education in the old man can be improved by planting his good qualities. The task of the ideal ruler Xun Zi believed "Conquest ment" of their own people. Formation of Confucianism as state ideology pro comes into permanent discussions with representatives of schools, "the lawyers" (legists). Theorists Legalism – Guan Zhong, Zi Chan, Lee Ke, Shan – opposed by Confucians on the nature of the state endowment device. As the highest value legists nominate a single powerful state with a monarchical form of government is fundamentally different from Confucian family category. Traditions histo les oppose the principle of phase – a single law, the creator of which can only be edinovlastnym ruler. In contrast to tradition, law is not sacred, and which may vary according to the needs of the time. Unambiguous, mandatory for every law, with which compliance must be ensured severe punishment system, form the basis of the state. Guarantor of control on the basis of the law is shi. The term used to refer to legists as violence and the government itself. Under the doctrine legists, the relationship of sovereignty to the people can only be hostile. Legists advanced the idea of regular administrative division, developed a system of centralized control by the state through a unified state apparatus, the principle of assigning ranks and privileges for specific merit.

Victor Emmanuel

1825 – Ferdinand I led a delegation to the coronation of Russian Emperor Nicholas I. In this and next year he personally engaged in the formation of Metternich. Metternich was taught: the three pillars of the monarchy – the throne, the army, the altar. 1830 – Coronation of Ferdinand I, King of Hungary as a junior, and when it is in response to words Welcome spoke in Hungarian, it provoked a storm of enthusiasm among the Hungarians, after Ferdinand I was the first and the last Habsburg, who during the ceremony, spoke in their native language. Wife of Ferdinand I – Maria Anna Carolina Pia, daughter King of Sardinia and Piedmont's Victor Emmanuel I and the Austrian Archduchess, and Modena Dr, Este, his wife was supposed to provide him with psychological support.

Wedding by proxy took place on Feb. 12, 1831, and the church ceremony in a small circle was made on February 27. Wife of Ferdinand I was a pious woman who spent much time in prayer, completely dissolved in their marriage, shared interests of the emperor and his charity events and willingly served under him the role of the nurse. August 9, 1832 – attempt on the Emperor – a shock, and – seriously ill. After recovery, it is entirely left to the classes in botany. January 1835 – Ferdinand I, his father dies and leaves message "To my son, Ferdinand." The coronation of Ferdinand I was not provided. 2. Policy: As a subsidiary body of Ferdinand I was a secret government meeting, the cat performed advisory functions.

King Atreus

Only the mind indomitable perseverance of this man managed to retract the time a city that was believed just a legend. Overcoming the difficulties, the emergence of diseases and criticism of scholars for their methods (the German was certainly not an archaeologist), Schliemann excavated soil distinguished between several layers for different phases of occupation of Troy, numbered I to VII. His discovery helped to prove unequivocally that the historical reality of the city, as confirmed by the appearance of a collection of objects and gold jewelry which he called "Priam's Treasure", the Trojan king of Homer's tales. In 1885, and moved to the city of Mycenae, he found the so-called Mask of Agamemnon, (dating from the seventeenth century BC) and next to it, a set of golden cups, diadems, jewelry, pins or brooches, a sword enameled brass handle, a dagger (also bronze and beautifully decorated with a hunting scene) and even 13 tombstones. Learn more on the subject from Sen. Sherrod Brown. With the discovery of these graves, which were the first performance of Mycenaean art found, it became known that the Mycenaeans were a commercial town with a very high-class luxury and given a certain influence of cultures such as the Cretan.

Mycenae Schliemann identified with the legendary kingdom of Atreus, descent belonging to legendary heroes like King Atreus and his sons Agamemnon and Menelaus. To prove that was right, deepens his excavations finally discovered the ruins of the former Mycenaean city, a wonderful ensemble that left stunned the archaeological community. Since then, critics silenced, even more so with the discovery of 20 corpses with abundant and rich grave goods, many objects of gold, bronze, ivory and amber.