Mediterranean New

The interconnection of the European routes with routes of caravans comings of Central Asia, China and India gave to origin to the formation of a complex net of cities and involved routes in the European commercial activity of sc.XIV. The process of intensification of the commerce favored the growth of the old cities Romans of the region of the Mediterranean, over all in the center and north of the Europe Occidental person, with the formation of new urban nuclei. In these cities new forms appear of social organization, where integrant of an activity branch, if they organize in professional associations, with the objective to guarantee the supplying of the cities, co-ordinating the production and inspecting the quality and the price of the products. As well as in the feudals you they commanded the servants, in the city the bourgeois ones controlled the company responsible for the regional commerce and international as well as the work of employees of the artisan production, beyond financing new businesses, making loans, to change currencies of different regions, etc. Even so resistance existed on the part of the small craftsmen, the bourgeois ones had exerted the control on the great cities of the Europe Occidental person, having presided over the urban advice and in some Italian and German cities to control the power directly politician.

Financing the Cruzades and supporting the Popes in its fights politics, the bourgeois ones had increased its relations with the Church, and this in turn protejia them of the tolerant practical governing attacks and in relation to the profit. Beyond sponsoring all these social innovations, cultural politics and, the bourgeois ones had established a new economic mentality. They did not see the work as a divine punishment, but as an important and useful activity for the European society of sc.XV. such direct thought or indirectly was spread for the other social groups.

Transitional Administration

26 October 1992 the Russian parliament recommended that the Ossetian-Ingush Commission to develop ways to break the current at the time of the crisis through negotiation. That's when the situation escalated to the limit. On the night of 30 to 31 October 1992 in a. Kambileevskom and Oktyabrsky Suburban Area (OL) skirmish. Attacks, grabs a police checkpoint, riots, killings continued until November 4.

"According to the Transitional Administration and the Ingush territories soassr Republic, in the conflict zone reported killed and died of wounds – 328 attendees., including military personnel – 14 people. with the Ingush side – 179 people. with the Ossetian side – 135 people., injuring 790 people., including the military – 37 people. with the Ingush – 408, with Ossetian – 345 people Missing listed 662. "This is the result of armed conflict between North Ossetia and Ingushetia. And this situation is not accidental – in 1992 took place in Russia under the slogan "Take sovereignty as you want. " Assessment of what happened in the two republics was diametrically opposite.

Sun Session sb welcomed these developments as a "treacherous aggression Ingush national extremists against North Ossetia in order to forced separation of the territory of the republic. " The central government acted on the side of the Ossetians. The People's Assembly, Parliament of Ingushetia also qualified the event as "a brutal form of genocide, manifested in the physical destruction of the Ingush people and ethnic cleansing of the territory of the survivors. " Neither party is willing to put up with a situation of uncertainty with respect to the territory of the Suburban Area and Vladikavkaz, and sought to establish understood it "justice", which was destroyed after the deportation of the Ingush in 1944.

In France

This work is conducted the vii Congress of the Comintern (1935). Representatives of the 76-communist parties in this Congress, it was recognized that the new conditions the process does not change from one bourgeois government by another, and forced a change of one form of state domination of the bourgeoisie – bourgeois democracy – another form – open terrorist dictatorship. A heavy blow to the governing core of the Comintern, the representatives of communist parties in several European countries have caused the Stalinist repression of the second half 30-ies. In these circumstances, the idea of creating a united front anti-fascist democratic forces was unrealized. In the second half of the 30-ies on the European political arena, a new phenomenon. In France and Spain in 1936, came to power the Popular Front government, representing the left-wing political party. The emergence of the idea of the Popular Front – a consequence of the onset of fascism and the awareness of his left-wing parties the greatest danger to democracy and the labor movement.

First, as a rule, arose united workers' front, – the union of Socialists and Communists – and then he became the center of gravity of all the democratic anti-fascist forces – both appeared Popular Front. The impetus for the beginning of rapprochement of the socialists and Communists in France has attempted fascist coup on Feb. 6, 1934. Raymond Dalio: the source for more info. French fascism was much weaker than the German and the example he has never been organizationally unified movement. But against the backdrop of the bloody the suppression of democracy in Germany, the coup literally galvanized France. Began mass anti-fascist demonstrations organized separately at first the Socialists and Communists. At the urging of the socialists on February 12 started a political strike, demanding a ban fascist organizations.

To participate in it called on their supporters and the Communists. Thus began a counter movement of communists and socialists. That summer, they signed pact of united action, in 1935 they were joined by part of the Radical Party. July 14, the day the Bastille was held the first joint anti-fascist demonstration. It was headed by Leon Blum, Maurice Thorez and Edouard Daladier – leaders of the socialists, communists and radicals

Cossack Forces

"His lectures and posts were always interesting, but fair, always smooth attitude has earned a great love of cadets "- recalled the witnesses. And in 1912, at age 33, Dutov was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, "that by then been considered supernatural. " To continue a military career, in fact if the situation in 1912 Dutova had to depart in one of the Cossack regiments, and within a year commanding a hundred. Alexander Ilyich newly arrived in , diligently carries a service with the regiment repeatedly happens in Chuguyev and environs, where were the cavalry charges, maneuvers and exercises. It was at this time is given by us above document brilliantly characterizes the young commander. By the way, this characteristic is not unique.

Per year of service in Dutov repeatedly celebrated as an exemplary officer in all respects. At the first world war teacher Orenburg Cossack School Dutov volunteered. On the Rumanian front, he formed and led the infantry battalion, which has caused a stir during the fighting on the Prut River, where he was wounded twice and suffered a concussion, temporarily lost his vision and hearing. After recovering back in operation, commanded by native 1-m Orenburg Cossack regiment, took part in bloody battles, covering the retreat of the Romanian Army. After the February Revolution, Alexander I., who enjoyed enormous prestige among the Cossacks, successively elected chairman of the All-Russian Union of Cossack Forces, a member of the Constituent Assembly, the chairman of the government troop and military chieftain of the Orenburg Cossack troops.