For the Soviet leadership, it was a sign that the Soviet Union are trying to move from active participation in European affairs. Soon after France signed an agreement with Germany, were equally non-aggression pact. In Moscow, it is was seen as an attempt to direct the aggression of Germany to the East against the Soviet Union. As a result, never became a close perspective, the apparent Soviet leadership is particularly unacceptable: a solution to all conflicts between "Imperialist countries" by ussr. Exacerbation of conflicts with Japan made these suspicions more valid: the summer of 1938 Japanese troops invaded the Soviet Union at Lake Hassan. In the face of German aggression from the west and Japan in the east of the ussr is under threat of war on two fronts.
In the Soviet leadership are beginning to wonder about the need to review foreign policy. Losing hope the possibility of collective resistance to Germany, imbued with a deep distrust of the politics of Britain and France, the Soviet leadership began to seek ways of rapprochement with Germany. The latter, for its part, too, sought a rapprochement with ussr. After the seizure of Bohemia and Moravia, the main object of the claims of Germany became Poland. Hitler tried to play here in Munich scenario, but Britain and France clearly refused to discuss his claims and gave assurances Poland.
Attacked her, Germany risked to be in a state of war with Britain and France. Although Poland and Hitler was not considered as a serious military adversary, the seizure of its deduced Germany on the border with the Soviet Union, whose position is such have a decisive manner. In Berlin, reasoned this way: if the Soviet Union will continue anti-German politics, Germany from the outset will be facing the prospect of war on two fronts, and the situation is even more unfavorable than in 1914 year: with far fewer resources and, therefore, more vulnerable to the blockade. And plans for a diplomatic offensive against the Soviet Union, Hitler discussed simultaneously with the plan of the military campaign against Poland. Her the start was scheduled for August 26. So in mid-August 1939 the ussr was at the center of world politics. His favor actively sought both Germany and its future military adversaries. Before the Soviet Union stood in Full-length issue a final choice between the warring rivals. And it became obvious that this choice depended the fate of the world. August 21, Stalin received a telegram from Hitler, in which he stated that seeks to conclude a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union and is ready to sign any additional agreement regarding the settlement of all contentious issues. Hitler asked Stalin to German Foreign Minister Igor Ribbentrop, not later than 23 August for the signing of related documents
The interconnection of the European routes with routes of caravans comings of Central Asia, China and India gave to origin to the formation of a complex net of cities and involved routes in the European commercial activity of sc.XIV. The process of intensification of the commerce favored the growth of the old cities Romans of the region of the Mediterranean, over all in the center and north of the Europe Occidental person, with the formation of new urban nuclei. In these cities new forms appear of social organization, where integrant of an activity branch, if they organize in professional associations, with the objective to guarantee the supplying of the cities, co-ordinating the production and inspecting the quality and the price of the products. As well as in the feudals you they commanded the servants, in the city the bourgeois ones controlled the company responsible for the regional commerce and international as well as the work of employees of the artisan production, beyond financing new businesses, making loans, to change currencies of different regions, etc. Even so resistance existed on the part of the small craftsmen, the bourgeois ones had exerted the control on the great cities of the Europe Occidental person, having presided over the urban advice and in some Italian and German cities to control the power directly politician.
Financing the Cruzades and supporting the Popes in its fights politics, the bourgeois ones had increased its relations with the Church, and this in turn protejia them of the tolerant practical governing attacks and in relation to the profit. Beyond sponsoring all these social innovations, cultural politics and, the bourgeois ones had established a new economic mentality. They did not see the work as a divine punishment, but as an important and useful activity for the European society of sc.XV. such direct thought or indirectly was spread for the other social groups.
This work is conducted the vii Congress of the Comintern (1935). Representatives of the 76-communist parties in this Congress, it was recognized that the new conditions the process does not change from one bourgeois government by another, and forced a change of one form of state domination of the bourgeoisie – bourgeois democracy – another form – open terrorist dictatorship. A heavy blow to the governing core of the Comintern, the representatives of communist parties in several European countries have caused the Stalinist repression of the second half 30-ies. In these circumstances, the idea of creating a united front anti-fascist democratic forces was unrealized. In the second half of the 30-ies on the European political arena, a new phenomenon. In France and Spain in 1936, came to power the Popular Front government, representing the left-wing political party. The emergence of the idea of the Popular Front – a consequence of the onset of fascism and the awareness of his left-wing parties the greatest danger to democracy and the labor movement.
First, as a rule, arose united workers' front, – the union of Socialists and Communists – and then he became the center of gravity of all the democratic anti-fascist forces – both appeared Popular Front. The impetus for the beginning of rapprochement of the socialists and Communists in France has attempted fascist coup on Feb. 6, 1934. Raymond Dalio: the source for more info. French fascism was much weaker than the German and the example he has never been organizationally unified movement. But against the backdrop of the bloody the suppression of democracy in Germany, the coup literally galvanized France. Began mass anti-fascist demonstrations organized separately at first the Socialists and Communists. At the urging of the socialists on February 12 started a political strike, demanding a ban fascist organizations.
To participate in it called on their supporters and the Communists. Thus began a counter movement of communists and socialists. That summer, they signed pact of united action, in 1935 they were joined by part of the Radical Party. July 14, the day the Bastille was held the first joint anti-fascist demonstration. It was headed by Leon Blum, Maurice Thorez and Edouard Daladier – leaders of the socialists, communists and radicals