To better understand the history of ancient Egypt, the establishment of its art and culture requires a brief digression to the main era that followed the development of this state. Egyptian border formed by nature. South extremity were impassable first Nile cataract, is located near Aswan. From the west to the river approached the sandy slopes of the Libyan plateau. Located on the east rocky mountain spurs. Below the first threshold Neal carried their water due north along a narrow long valley. This area is called Upper Egypt. Two hundred kilometers from the mouth of a river in ancient times, divides into several branches, the valley widened, forming a Nile Delta, the so-called Lower Egypt.
If you look into the distance of centuries and Unwind time counter for 10-12 thousand years ago, we can see that the climate of North Africa was less arid than it is now. More recently completed the melting of ice, covering part of Europe in the late glacial period. At this time, over North Africa swept the moist winds, heavy rains fell, and at the site of present desert was a savanna with high grass and rich flora world. Nile Valley and its neighboring areas have been mastered early in person. Here are found the remains of encampments paleolithic hunters and gatherers with hearths, animal bones and tools. The number of flint implements some of the settlements reached several thousand. The most typical monuments of the farming communities of Lower Egypt V millennium bc are the settlements are located on the shores of Lake Fayum.